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Morphological level of language

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Автор: Леонова Татьяна Вячеславовна

Morphologicallevel of language According to Pribytok I.I., morphology studies the grammatical structure ofwords and the categories realized by them. Ex: girls (the root – girl,inflexion – s) Bloch M.Y. thinks that morphology as a part of grammatical theory facestwo segmental units: the morpheme and the word. In studying the morpheme we
study the word in the necessary details of its compositionsand functions. Grammatical FormCharacteristics(acc. to A.I. Smirnitsky): It never characterizes theword as a whole.One and the same form canrender the meanings of different grammatical categories: The sun rises in theeast.One form cannot combine initself two meanings of one and the same grammatical category.Grammatical meanings Based on the phenomena ofextra linguistic reality.Based on the subjective attitude of the speaker to the phenomena ofextra linguistic reality.Predeterminedlinguistically.these house – these housesTypes of Grammatical FormsAnalyticalforms – a unity of a notional wordand an auxiliary word.haswritten – is written Synthetic forms:*AffixationPrefixesSuffixesInfixes*Sound interchange of: Nouns  (foot - feet)Adjectives (much – more – most) Pronoun (this – these)Irregular verbs (to sing – sang – sung) ALLO-EMIC THEORY (DescriptiveLinguists) EME-TERМS denote the generalized in variant units of language expressed bу phonemes & morphemes. ALLO-TERМS denote the concrete, manifestations or variants of the generalized units& are expressed bу allophones & allomorphs. The allo-emicidentification of lingual elements is achieved bу means of the distributional analysisThe 1st stage: the text is divided into recurrent segments consisting of phonemes, thesegments are called MORPHS. The/ boat / s were /  gain / ing/ speed. At the 2dstage the environmental features of the morphs areestablished. Three main types of the distributional analysis: Contrastive (returned, returning) their meanings (functions) are different 2. Non-contrastive (learned & learnt) their meaning (function) isthe same. 3. Complementary [en] (children, охеn) If two or more morphs havethe same meaning & the difference in their form is explained bу different environments.

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